Commentaries on Individual Plays III

The Importance of Being Earnest

Bloom, Harold, ed. Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest: modern critical interpretations. NY: Chelsea House, 1988. 160 pp (introduction, 1-10)

Gillespie, Michael P., ed. The Importance of Being Earnest: authoritative texts, backgrounds, criticism. NY: Norton, 2006. 246 pp

Ackerman, Alan. ‘Form and freedom in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Pp 142-50 in Smith

Al-Hejazi, Ali A. ‘Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest and Gilbert’s Engaged: a comparative study.’ Journal of the College of Arts, King Saud University 12 i 1985 107-14

Anniah Gowda, Hennür H. Dramatic poetry from mediaeval to modern times: a philosophic inquiry into the nature of poetic drama in England, Ireland and the United States of America. Madras: Macmillan, 1972, 214-18

Archer, William. The theatrical ‘world’ of 1895. London: Walter Scott, 1896, 56-60: ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ (review of first performance)

Bà, Paolo. ‘Archetipi e ironia in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Lettore di Provincia (Ravenna) 10 1972 33-45

Barris, Jeremy. ‘The formal structure of metaphysics and The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Metaphilosophy 39 2008 546-70

Barth, Adolf. ‘Oscar Wilde’s “comic refusal”: a reassessment of The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Archiv 131 1979 120-28

Baselga, Mariano. ‘Oscar Wilde and the semantic mechanisms of humour: the satire of social habits.’ Pp 13-20 in Sandeluscu (16-20 on the play)

Bastist, Brigitte. ‘The Importance of Being Earnest (1895) by Oscar Wilde: conformity and resistance in Victorian society.’ Pp 53-63 in Drugeon

Beaurline, L. A. ‘The director, the script, and the author’s revisions: a critical problem.’ Pp 78-91 in David M. Knauf, ed. Papers in dramatic theory and criticism. Iowa City: Univ. of Iowa, 1969

Beerbohm, Max. Around theatres, volume I. London: Heinemann, 1924, 331-36 (review of 1902 performance)

Belford, Barbara. Oscar Wilde: a certain genius. NY: Random House, 2000, see index

Bennett, Michael Y. Words, space, and the audience: the theatrical tension between empiricism and rationalism. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, 27-56: ‘Victorian ideals: Wilde performances in The Importance of Being Earnest and Salomé’ (35-39, 42-50 on the play)

Bentley, Eric. The playwright as thinker: a study of drama in modern times. NY: Reynal, 1946, 172-77; repr. on pp 111-15 in Ellmann

Bernardes Gonçalves, Lourdes. ‘Bakhtin’s concept of heteroglossy as an instrument of humour in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Estudos Anglo-Americanos 19-24 1995-2000 13-19

Billi, Mirella. ‘Parody of models in the comedies of Oscar Wilde.’ Pp 190-200 in Franci (198-200 on the play)

Bird, Alan. The plays of Oscar Wilde. NY: Barnes & Noble, 1977, 160-83

Bolton, Theodore. ‘The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 50 1956 205-08 (the four-act version)

Bormann, Daniel C. ‘The Importance of Being Earnest as regards both propositional and pragmatic behaviour.’ Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 41 2000 235-48

Bose, Tirthankar. ‘Oscar Wilde’s game of being earnest.’ Modern Drama 21 1978 81-86

Breuer, Horst. ‘Oscar Wildes The Importance of Being Earnest als modernes Drama.’ Germanisch-Romanisches Monatsschrift 38 1988 444-54

Bristow, Joseph. ‘Introduction.’ Pp 1-26 in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest and other writings. Ed. Bristow. London: Routledge, 1992

Brown, Keith. ‘Art for Ernest’s sake.’ English 33 1984 235-46

Bunnell, W. S. ‘Critical commentary.’ Pp 9-39 in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest. London: Oxford UP, 1958

Byrne, Sandie. ‘Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Pp 161-78 in Jay Parini, ed. British writers: classics, volume I. NY: Scribner’s, 2003

Camati, A. S. ‘Parodia de convencoes literarias em The Importance of Being Earnest de Oscar Wilde.’ Revista de Ciencias Humanas 2 ii 1993 171-78

Catanzaro, Michael R. ‘From the country to the city, Bunburyists rise above societal conceptions of good and evil in the earnest pursuit of passion.’ Pp 212-17 in Will Wright & Steven Kaplan, eds. The image of the city in literature, media, and society. Pueblo: Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Social Imagery, Univ. of Southern Colorado, 2003

Chothia, Jean. English drama of the early modern period, 1890-1940. London: Longman, 1996, 130-39: ‘The Importance of Being Earnest (1895)’

Clausson, Nils. ‘The importance of being Gwendolen Fairfax: Arthur Conan Doyle’s “The Voice of Science” & Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Wildean 27 2005 37-38

Cohen, Ed. ‘Laughing in earnest: the trying context of Wilde’s “trivial” comedy.’ Lit: Literature, Interpretation, Theory 3 i 1991 57-64

Cohen, Philip K. The moral vision of Oscar Wilde. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1978, 181-232: ‘Fortunes of the Christian hero: the later plays and scenarios’ (216-25 on the play)

Cohn Elisha. ‘“One single ivory cell”: Oscar Wilde and the brain.’ Journal of Victorian Culture 17 2012 183-205 (‘how Wilde’s socialism can be explained by his uniquely aesthetic take on the brain’)

Craft, Christopher. ‘Alias Bunbury: desire and termination in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Pp 106-39 in Craft, ed. Another kind of love: male homosexual desire in English discourse, 1850-1920. Berkeley: Univ. of California Pr., 1994 (from Representations 31 1990 19-46); repr. on pp 119-37 in Gagnier

Dawick, John. ‘Oscar’s last first night or, The impossibility of exhausting Earnest.’ Pp 13-24 in Böker

Dibb, Geoff. ‘Oscar Wilde and the Cardew family.’ Wildean 33 2008 2-12

Dickson, Sarah A. ‘Introduction.’ Pp 1-26 in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest: A Trivial Comedy for Serious People: in four acts as originally written by Oscar Wilde. NY: NY Public Library, 1956 (examines the manuscripts)

Dierkes-Thrun, Petra. ‘Aestheticist comedy of manners: Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Pp 223-36 in Sibylle Baumbach & Birgit Neumann, eds. A history of British drama: genres—developments—model interpretations. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2011

Donohue, Joseph W. ‘The first production of The Importance of Being Earnest: a proposal for a reconstructive study.’ Pp 125-43 in Kenneth Richards & Peter Thomson, eds. Essays on nineteenth century British theatre. London: Methuen, 1971

—–. ‘The play and its moment’ and ‘The production text.’ Pp 23-70 and 71-93 in Donahue with Ruth Berggren, eds. The Importance of Being Earnest: a reconstructive critical edition of the text of the first production at St. James’s Theatre, London, 1895, annotated and illustrated from contemporary sources. Gerrards Cross: Smythe, 1995

Drinkwater, John. The muse in council. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1925, 225-29: ‘The Importance of Being Earnest

Dukes, Ashley. ‘Fashions in comedy.’ Theatre Arts 27 1943 584-90

Easthope, Antony. ‘Jokes and ideology: [Aristophanes’s] The Frogs and Earnest.’ New Comparison 3 1987 117-32

Edwards, Hilton. ‘Introduction.’ Pp vii-xv in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest. Ed. Micheál MacLiammóir. Dublin: Dolmen Pr., 1963

Eltis, Sos. Revising Wilde: society and subversion in the plays of Oscar Wilde. Oxford: Clarendon Pr., 1996, 170-200

Ericksen, Donald H. Oscar Wilde. Boston: Twayne, 1977, 145-52

Falzon, Alex R. ‘The Importance of Being Earnest di Oscar Wilde: ovvero l’eros e le peripezie del nome proprio.’ Pp 105-19 in Viola Papetti & Laura Visconti, eds. Le forme del teatro, VI: Eros e commedia sulla scena inglese dal tardo Seicento al Novecento. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1997

Felter, Joachim. ‘Critical fallibilism in Oscar Wilde: Karl Popper anticipated?’ Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 43 1995 218-33

Fineman, Joel. The subjectivity effect in Western literary tradition: essays toward the release of Shakespeare’s will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Pr., 1991, 32-42: ‘The significance of literature: The Importance of Being Earnest’ (from October 15 1980 79-90); repr. on pp 108-18 in Gagnier and on pp 139-48 in Freedman

Finney, Gail. ‘Comparative perspectives on gender and comedy: the examples of Wilde, Hofmannsthal and Ebner-Eschenbach.’ Modern Drama 37 1994 638-50

Foster, Richard. ‘Wilde as parodist: a second look at The Importance of Being Earnest.’ College English 18 1956 18-23; repr. on pp 159-66 in Tydeman

Fuchs, Dieter. ‘Wilde, Wagner, and the aestheticist debate of representation: “What’s in a name? The Importance of Being Earnest, or Lohengrin.’ Anglistik 20 ii 131-43

Gagnier, Regina. Idylls of the marketplace: Oscar Wilde and the Victorian public. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1986, 111-17; repr. on pp 109-18 in Bloom

Ganz, Arthur. ‘The meaning of The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Modern Drama 6 1963 42-52

Garland, Tony W. ‘The contest of meaning in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Explicator 70 2012 272-74

Gielgud, John. ‘Introduction.’ Pp i-xi in Wilde. Lady Windermere’s Fan and  The Importance of Being Earnest. London: Roberts, 1973

—–. Stage directions. London: Heinemann, 1965, 78-84: ‘The Importance of Being Earnest

Gillespie, Michael P. Oscar Wilde and the poetics of ambiguity. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996, 100-114: ‘The Victorian impulse in conte mporary audiences: the regularization of The Importance of Being Earnest’; 115-32: ‘From Beau Brummel to Lady Bracknell: reviewing the dandy in The Importance of Being Earnest’; repr. on pp 166-82 in Gillespie (from VIJ: Victorians Institute Journal 21 1993 119-42)

Giudicelli, Xavier. ‘Handbag de Mark Ravenhill (1999): réincarnation de The Importance of Being Earnest à la fin des années 1990.’ Pp 99-114 in Drugeon

Glavin, John. ‘Deadly Earnest and Earnest revived: Wilde’s four-act play.’ Nineteenth-Century Studies 1 1987 13-24

Green, William. ‘Oscar Wilde and the Bunburys.’ Modern Drama 21 1978 67-80 (the real-life model)

Gregor, Ian. ‘Comedy and Oscar Wilde.’ Sewanee Review 74 1966 501-21; repr. on 11-26 in Bloom (stresses the play)

Grundy, Sydney. The play of the future. London: Samuel French, 1914, 18-22

Guedj, Emmanuelle. ‘Wandering identities: of bags and plays by Wilde, Pinter and McGuinness.’ Études Brittaniques Contemporaines 35 2008 15-25

Guralnik, Elissa S., & Paul M. Levitt. ‘Allusion and meaning in Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Éire / Ireland 13 iv 1978 45-51

Gurewitch, Morton. Comedy: the irrational vision. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1975, 117-20

Gurfinkel, Helena. ‘“Yet each man kills the thing he loves”: murder and sexual transgression in The Importance of Being Earnest, “Lord Arthur Savile’s Crime,” and Salome.’ Pp 163-74 in Keane (164-69 on the play)

Harrison, S. J. ‘Prunes and Prism: Wilde and Dickens.’ Notes and Queries 44 1997 351-52

Hartcup, Adeline. ‘Introduction.’ Pp vii-xiii in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest: A Trivial Play for Serious People. London: Methuen, 1966

Heilman, Robert B. The ways of the world: comedy and society. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Pr., 1978, 150-52 and see index

Himberg, Kay, & Sabine Greiner. ‘The importance of being a dandy: Oscar Wilde und Gabriele D’Annunzio.’ Pp 114-49 in A. J. Johnston & U. Schneider, eds. Anglo-Romanische Kulturkontakte von Humanismus bis Postkolonialismus. Berlin: Dahlem Pr., 2002 (129-32 on the play)

Hobson, Harold. Verdict at midnight: sixty years of dramatic criticism. London: Longmans, 1952, 52-55, 145-46

Hodgson, Terry. Modern drama from Ibsen to Fugard. London: Batsford, 1992, 65-69 (stresses the play)

Hogan, Emma. Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest: a critical introduction. Cork: Mercier Educational Pr., 1972 (not verified)

Hopper, Vincent F., & Gerald B. Lahey. ‘The play.’ Pp 40-52 in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest. Great Neck, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, 1959 (see also 9-39: ‘The playwright’)

Horan, Patrick M. The importance of being paradoxical: maternal presence in the works of Oscar Wilde. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997, 106-11: ‘The Importance of Being Earnest: the importance of being material’

Hornby, Richard. ‘Earnest.’ Hudson Review 64 2012 683-90 (scans his literary creations, favoring little but the play)

Innes, Christopher. Modern British drama, 1890-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992, 216-23: ‘Oscar Wilde: paradoxical fantasy and moral subversion’ (219-23 on the play)

Jackson, Russell. ‘A classic without danger: the National Theatre’s Importance of Being Earnest.’ Critical Quarterly 25 ii 1983 73-80

—–. ‘Introduction.’ Pp xi-xli in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest. London: Benn, 1980 (also textual notes and variants, 106-28)

—–. ‘The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Pp 161-77 in Raby

Jenkins, Anthony. The making of Victorian drama. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991, 220-24

Jordan, Robert J. ‘Satire and fantasy in Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Ariel 1 iii 1970 101-09; repr. on pp 27-34 in Bloom

Kaplan, Joel H. ‘An earnest for our time: KAOS, Handbag and Lady Bracknell’s Confinement.’ Irish Studies Review 13 2005 341-51 (effects of a modernized production)

—–. ‘Ernest Worthing’s London address: a reconsideration.’ Canadian Journal of Irish Studies 11 i 1985 53-54

Kelly, Katherine E. Tom Stoppard and the craft of comedy: medium and genre at play. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Pr., 1991, 104-13: ‘Travesties: bursting Wilde’s bubble’

Kiberd, Declan. Inventing Ireland. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1996, 33-50: ‘Oscar Wilde: the artist as Irishman’ (much of 38-50 on the play); repr. on pp 9-23 in McCormack

Killeen, Jarlath. The faiths of Oscar Wilde: Catholicism, folklore and Ireland. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 138-61: ‘Art and life: the politics of ritualism in The Importance of Being Earnest

Knowles, Ronald. ‘Bunburying with Bakhtin: a carnivalesque reading of  The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Essays in Poetics 20 1995 170-81

Knox, Melissa. Oscar Wilde: a long and lovely suicide. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1994, 90-109: ‘The dialectics of The Importance of Being Earnest

Kohl, Norbert. Oscar Wilde: the works of a conformist rebel. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989, 255-74: ‘Propriety and parody: The Importance of Being Earnest

Kuch, Peter. ‘Prism! Where is that baby? Locating Wilde in 2004.’ Irish Studies Review 13 2005 277-81

La Farge, Benjamin. ‘Comedy’s intention.’ Philosophy and Literature 28 i 2004 118-37 (illustrates theories by analyzing a scene from the play)

Laity, Susan. ‘The soul of man under Victoria: Iolanthe, The Importance of Being Earnest, and bourgeois drama.’ Pp 119-46 in Bloom

Lalonde, Jeremy. ‘A “revolutionary outrage”: The Importance of Being Earnest as social criticism.’ Modern Drama 48 2005 659-76

Lemonnier, Léon. ‘Oscar Wilde et L’Importance d’être sévère.’ Revue Anglo-Américaine 10 1933 410-17

Leverson, Ada. ‘The last first night.’ New Criterion 4 i 1926 148-53

Loewenstein, Joseph. ‘Wilde and the evasion of principle.’ South Atlantic Quarterly 84 1985 392-400; repr. on pp 114-21 in Freedman and on pp 99-108 in Bloom

Lydon, Mary. ‘Myself and m /others.’ Sub-Stance 22 1981 6-14

Mabley, Edward. Dramatic construction: an outline of basic principles. Philadelphia, PA: Chilton, 1972, 128-38: ‘The Importance of Being Earnest

Macaulay, Marcia. ‘Ritual insults in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Kodikas / Code 19 1996 283-92

Mackie, Gregory. ‘The function of decorum at the present time: manners, moral language, and modernity in “an Oscar Wilde play.”’ Modern Drama 52 2009 145-67 (158-62: ‘Etiquette in Earnest)

Mackie, W. Craven. ‘Bunbury pure and simple.’ Modern Drama 41 1998 327-30

Marcovitch, Heather. The art of the pose: Oscar Wilde’s performance theory. Bern: Lang, 2010, 151-84: ‘The dialectic of persona and stereotypes in the society comedies’ (175-84 on the play)

Mason, A. E. W. Sir George Alexander and the St. James’ Theatre. London: Macmillan, 1935, 72-90 (first production of the play)

Matthews, Brander. A study of the drama. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1910, 126-31

McCarthy, Mary. Theatre chronicles, 1937-1962. NY: Farrar, Straus, 1963, 106-10: ‘The unimportance of being Oscar’; repr. on pp 122-24 in Morris Freedman, ed. Essays in the modern drama. Boston, MA: Heath, 1964 and on pp 107-10 in Ellmann

McCulloch, Andrew. ‘Talent borrows, genius steals.’ English Review 12 iii 2002 16-19

—–. ‘The truth of masks: Oscar Wilde and The Importance of Being Earnest.’ English Review 9 iii 1999 14-16

McDougal, Bonnie. ‘The Importance of Being Earnest in China.’ Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 1972-73 84-98

McKenna, Neil. The secret life of Oscar Wilde. London: Century, 2003, 308-12, 331-35

Mendelssohn, Michèle. Henry James, Oscar Wilde and aesthetic culture. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2007, 163-96: ‘“Wild thoughts and desire! Things I can’t tell you—words I can’t speak!”: the drama of identity in The Importance of Being Earnest and Guy Domville

Mikhail, E. H. ‘The four-act version of The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Modern Drama 11 1968 263-66; repr. on pp 102-05 in Gillespie

Miller, Edmund. ‘Renaming Algernon.’ Pp 215-24 in Keane

Miller, Robert K. Oscar Wilde. NY: Ungar, 1982, 72-89: ‘Exploring the absurd: The Importance of Being Earnest

Morrison, Christopher S. ‘Bread and butter to boiling oil: from Wilde’s afternoon tea to [Martin McDonagh’s] The Beauty Queen of Leenane.’ New Hibernia Review 14 iii 2010 106-20

Moss, Roger. ‘The rhetoric that dare not speak its name.’ Pre / Text: A Journal of Rhetorical Theory 13 iii-iv 1992 109-22 (the play and Dorian Gray)

Mudrick, Marvin. ‘Restoration comedy and later.’ Pp 120-25 in W. K. Wimsatt, ed. English stage comedy. NY: Columbia UP, 1955 (English Institute Essays 1954)

Mullini, Roberta. ‘“Cortesia” e “onesta” in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Spicilegio Moderno 12 1979 149-58

Musolf, Peter. ‘Bunburying and the art of kabuki: or, Wilde, Mishima, and the importance of being a sardine seller.’ New Theatre Quarterly 48 1996 333-39

Nassaar, Christopher S. The Importance of Being Earnest revisited. Bognor Regis: Woodfield, 2005. 176 pp (a novel adapting the play by drawing upon many other works by Wilde)

—–. Into the demon universe: a literary exploration of Oscar Wilde. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1974, 129-45

—–. ‘Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Explicator 60 ii 2002 78-80

—–. ‘Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest and Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead.’ Explicator 58 1997 91-92

Nelson, Walter W. Oscar Wilde and the dramatic critics: a study in Victorian theatre. Lund: Bloms, 1989, 142-90

Neumeier, Beate. Spiel und Politik: Aspekte der Komik bei Tom Stoppard. Munich: Fink, 1986, 138-43: ‘Wildes The Importance of Being Earnest: Binnenhandlung’ (relation to Travesties)

Niederhoff, Burkhard. ‘Parody, paradox and play in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Connotations 13 i-ii 2003-04 32-55

Olson, Elder. The theory of comedy. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1968, 107-14

Pablé, Adrian. ‘The importance of re-naming Ernest? Italian translations of Oscar Wilde.’ Target: International Journal of Translation Studies 17 2005 297-326

Paglia, Camille. Sexual personae: art and decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1990, 531-71: ‘The English epicene: Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest’ (modified from  Raritan 4 iii 1985 85-109, which is repr. on pp 93-107 in Gagnier, on pp 116-36 in Gillespie, and on pp 77-97 in Bloom)

Pankratz, Annette. ‘Playing with Oscar—camp as textual strategy in adaptations of The Importance of Being Earnest by Orton, Fleming and Ravenhill.’ Pp 229-36 in Böker

Parker, David. ‘Oscar Wilde’s great farce: The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Modern Language Quarterly 35 1974 173-86; repr. on pp 166-79 in Tydeman and on pp 35-47 in Bloom

Pathak, R. S. Oscar Wilde: a critical study. Allahabad: Lokbharti, 1976, 78-90

Paul, Charles B., & Robert D. Pepper. ‘The importance of reading Alfred: Oscar Wilde’s debt to Alfred de Musset.’ Bulletin of the New York Public Library 75 1971 506-42 (the play ‘is essentially a masterful adaptation’ of a Musset play’)

Peinert, Dietrich. ‘Neuere Aufsatze zu Oscar Wildes Dramen.’ Literatur in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 1 i 1968 59-68

Pestka, Dariusz. Oscar Wilde: between aestheticism and anticipation of modernism. Torún: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Miko»aja Kopernika, 1999, 108-17: ‘The elements constituting the internal logic of The Importance of Being Earnest

Pine, Richard. Oscar Wilde. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1983, 92-97

Pireddu, Nicoletta. [Introduction.] Pp i-lxvii (approximate) in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest. Naples: Loffredo, 1999

Poague, L. A. ‘The Importance of Being Earnest: the texture of Wilde’s irony.’ Modern Drama 16 1973 251-57

Popkin, Henry. ‘Introduction.’ Pp vii-xvi in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest. San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1961

Powell, Kerry. Acting Wilde: Victorian sexuality, theatre, and Oscar Wilde. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009, 101-22: ‘Performativity and history: Oscar Wilde and The Importance of Being Earnest’ (102-05: ‘Jack Worthing and the anthropology of performance’; 105-13: ‘Historicizing Earnest’s “Social drama”’; 114-22: ‘Performing Earnest

—–. Oscar Wilde and the theatre of the 1890s. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990, 108-23: ‘The importance of being at Terry’s’; 124-39: ‘Algernon’s other brothers’ (the latter repr. on pp 138-54 in Gagnier)

Poznar, Walter. ‘Life and play in Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Midwest Quarterly 30 1989 515-28

Raby, Peter. ‘L’Importance d’être constant: première esquisse.’ Magazine Littéraire 343 1966 44-46

—–. The Importance of Being Earnest: a reader’s companion. NY: Twayne, 1995. 117 pp; 125-40, ‘The genesis of the play,’ repr. on pp 183-95 in Gillespie

—–. ‘The origins of The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Modern Drama 37 1994 139-47

—–. Oscar Wilde. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988, 129-45

—–. ‘“The persons of the play”: some reflections on Wilde’s choice of names in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Nineteenth Century Theatre 23 1995 67-75

—–. ‘Wilde, and how to be modern: or, bags of red gold.’ Pp 147-62 in Bristow 2

Reinert, Otto. ‘The courtship dance in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Modern Drama 1 1959 256-57

—–. ‘Satiric strategy in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ College English 18 1956 14-18; repr. on pp 1537-43 in Eric Bentley, ed. The great playwrights: twenty-five plays with commentaries by critics and scholars, II. NY: Doubleday, 1970, and on pp 153-59 in Tydeman

Reitz, B. ‘Oscar Wildes The Importance of Being Earnest und die Schwierigkeit, die Form  zu wahren.’ Pp 315-38 in Franz N. Mennemeier, ed. Die grossen Kom  ödien Europas. Tübingen: Francke, 2001

Rivers, Bryan. ‘Notes for further research: B.4. the Albany: revisiting Ernest Worthing’s London address.’ Canadian Journal of Irish Studies 32 ii 2006 58-59

Robbins, Ruth. Oscar Wilde. London: Continuum, 2011, 144-61: ‘Artificial worlds: Salomé and The Importance of Being Earnest’; 151-61 on the play

Rodríguez Ravelo, Cristina. ‘Oscar Wilde’s humorous manipulation of discourse with “elaborate politeness” in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Babel 20 2011 71-86

Rohmann, Gerd. ‘Re-discovering Wilde in travesties by Joyce and Stoppard.’ Pp 338-47 in Sandulescu

Rose, D. C. ‘Calling things by their proper names.’ Wildean 33 2008 34-43 (in the play and Portrait of Dorian Gray)

Ross, Iain. Oscar Wilde and ancient Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2013, 173-79 passim

Rosten, Murray. The comic mode in English literature from the middle ages to today. London: Continuum, 2011, 187-97

Rusinko, Susan. Tom Stoppard. Boston, MA: Twayne, 1986, 46-60: ‘Travesties: caviar to the general public’ (passim on Stoppard’s use of the play)

Rustin, Margaret, & Michael Rustin. Mirror to nature: drama, psychoanalysis, and society. London: Karnac, 2002, 160-89: ‘Oscar Wilde’s glittering surface’ (175-89 on the play)

Salamensky, S. I. The modern art of influence and the spectacle of Oscar Wilde. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, 99-114: ‘The Impotence of Being Earnest and mod ontologies’; 114-17: ‘Earnest in high definition’ (2011 film)

Sale, Roger. ‘Being earnest.’ Hudson Review 56 2003 475-84

Sammells, Neil. Tom Stoppard: the artist as critic. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988, 73-86 (from ‘Earning liberties: Travesties and The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Modern Drama 29 1986 376-87)

—–. Wilde style: the plays and prose of Oscar Wilde. Harlow: Longman, 2000, 104-13

San Juan, Epifanio. The art of Oscar Wilde. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1967, 180-96

—–. ‘Oscar Wildes The Importance of Being Earnest und die Form seiner Komödien.’ Pp 25-47 in Willi Erzgräber, ed. Englische Literatur  von Oscar Wilde bis Samuel Beckett. Frankfurt: Fischer, 1970

Schroeder, Horst. ‘Bimetallism: a topical reference in Oscar Wilde.’ Notes and Queries 40 1993 56-58

—–. Earnest in a German court.’ Wildean 29 2006 70-75

—–. ‘The first editor of the four-act version of Earnest: Hermann Freiherr von Feschenberg.’ Wildean 32 2008 8-28

Sedgwick, Eve K. ‘Tales of the avuncular: queer tutelage in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Pp 191-209 in George E. Haggerty & Bonnie Zimmerman, eds. Professions of desire: lesbian and gay studies in literature. NY: Modern Language Association, 1995

Seeney, Michael. ‘In defence of Lane: a personal view of a joke.’ Wildean 8 1996 37-42

Senelick, Laurence. ‘Master Wood’s profession: Wilde and the subculture of homosexual blackmail in the Victorian theatre.’ Pp 162-82 in Bristow 2 (176-79 on the play)

Shaw, Bernard. ‘An old play and a new one.’ Saturday Review 79 1895 249-50; repr. on pp 41-48 in Shaw. Our theatres in the nineties, volume I. London: Constable, 1932 (41-44 on the play); also repr. on pp 99-100 in Gillespie

Shewan, Rodney. Oscar Wilde: art and egotism. London: Macmillan, 186-93: ‘The Importance of Being Earnest: the providential pun’ (repr. on pp 49-55 in Bloom)

Siegel, Maxwell E. ‘On losing both one’s parents: carelessness or tampering?’ OSCHOLARS 30 Oct 2003-Oct 2006 (ca. 4 pp; online textual study: <www.irishdiaspora.net/ids/exhibits/253/And-I-May-I-Say-Nothing.doc> )

Snell-Hornby, Mary. ‘“Is this a dagger which I see before me?”: the non-verbal language of drama.’ Pp 187-201 in Fernando Poyatos, ed. Nonverbal communication and translation: new perspectives and challenges in literature, interpretation and the media. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1997

Snider, Clifton. ‘Synchronicity and the trickster in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Wildean 27 2005 55-63

Sorell, Walter. Facets of comedy. NY: Grosset & Dunlap, 1972, 192-95, 297-99

Spininger, Dennis J. ‘Profiles and principles: the sense of the absurd in The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Papers on Language and Literature 12 1976 49-72

Stanford, Alan. ‘Acting Wilde.’ Pp 152-57 in McCormack (the Patrick Mason production at the Gate Theatre)

Stanford, Derek. ‘The importance of not being earnest.’ Norseman 10 1952 329-32

Stone, Geoffrey. ‘Serious Bunburyism: the logic of The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Essays in Criticism 26 1976 28-41

Styan, J. L. The elements of drama. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1960, 20-24, 53-54, 143-46

Tadié, Alexis. ‘“An age of surfaces”: le langage de la comédie dans The Importance of Being Earnest d’Oscar Wilde.’ Études Anglaises 58 2005 323-35

Thienpoint, Eva. ‘Faltering arrow to pistol shot: The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Cambridge Quarterly 33 2004 245-55; repr. on pp 106-15 in Gillespie

Toliver, Harold E. ‘Wilde and the importance of sincere and studied triviality.’ Modern Drama 5 1963 389-99; comment: Arthur H. Nethercot. ‘Prunes and Miss Prism.’ Modern Drama 6 1963 112-16

Traynor, Desmond. ‘Modes of subversion in Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest and Synge’s The Playboy of the Western World.’ Alumnus: Academic Journal of the Graduate Student’ Union, Trinity College (Dublin) 1999-2000; repr. in <www.irishdiaspora.net/ids/exhibits/242/And-I-May-I-Say-Nothing.doc 2> (ca. 7 pp)

Varty, Anne. A  preface to Oscar Wilde. London: Longman, 1998, 192-206

Vatain, Julie. ‘Face to face in word and translation: playing with words and playing with accents in two scenes by Oscar Wilde and G. B. Shaw.’ Études Irlandaises 33 ii 2008 91-103 (title on the article is ‘Face to face on the foreign stage translating into French: contrast and symmetry in two scenes by Wilde and Shaw’)

Villari, Enrica. ‘Il dandy e il cameriere: diverse forme del comico en The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Annali della Facoltà di Lingue e Letterature Stranieri di Cà Foscari 22 1983 291-96

Vordtriede, Werner. ‘A dramatic device in Faust and The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Modern Language Notes 70 1955 584-85

Vos, Jozef de. ‘Ravenhill’s Wilde game.’ Pp 47-56 in Marc Maufort & Franca Bellarsi, eds. Crucible of cultures: Anglophone drama at the dawn of a new millenium. Brussels: Lang, 2002 (Mark Ravenhill’s plays in relation to Wilde’s play)

Wadleigh, Paul C. ‘Earnest at St. James’s Theatre.’ Quarterly Journal of Speech 52 1966 58-62 (the first production)

Waldrep, Shelton. The aesthetics of self-invention: Oscar Wilde to David Bowie. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Pr., 2004, 49-61: ‘Mechanical bodies and desiring machines: The Importance of Being Earnest

Ware, James M. ‘Algernon’s appetite: Oscar Wilde’s hero as Restoration dandy.’ English Literature in Transition 13 1970 17-26

Wedgwood, C. V. Mightier than the sword. NY: Macmillan, 1964, 7-10 (the power of the dialogue)

Weikert, Heidrun E. Tom Stoppards Dramen: Untersuchungen zu Sprache und Dialog. Tübingen: Narr, 1982, 175-81: ‘[Wörtliche Übernahmen:] Oscar Wildes The Importance of Being Earnest in Travesties

Whitaker, Thomas R. Mirrors of our playing: paradigms and presences in modern drama. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Pr., 1999, 41-64: ‘The music of serious farce: Wilde, Shaw, Orton, and Stoppard’ (passim on Wilde, especially The Importance of Being Earnest)

—–. ‘Playing in Earnest.’ Pp 407-23 in Susan Dick et al., eds. Omnium gatherum: essays for Richard Ellmann. Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1989

—–. Tom Stoppard. NY: Grove Pr., 1983, 110-20, 122-24 (relation to Travesties)

Wood, E. R. ‘Commentary and notes.’ Pp 71-83 in Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest. London: Heinemann Educational, 1970 (also ‘Introduction’ by John Gielgud, vii-xiii)

Worth, Katharine J. Oscar Wilde. London: Macmillan, 1983, 152-82; repr. on pp 122-38 in Freedman and, as ‘The triumph of the pleasure principle,’ on pp 57-75 in Bloom

—–. Revolutions in modern English drama. London: Bell, 1972, 148-53

Zaic, Franz. ‘The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Pp 45-64 in Horst Oppel, ed. Das moderne englische Drama: Interpretationen. 3rd ed. Berlin: Schmidt, 1976

—–. ‘Zu Anouilhs Bearbeitung von Oscar Wildes The Importance of Being Earnest.’ Neueren Sprachen 1959 210-24

Zelter, Joachim. Sinnhafte Fiktion und Wahrheit: Untersuchungen zur ästhetischen und epistemologischen Problematik des Fiktionsbegriffs im Kontext europäischer Ideen- und englischer Literaturgeschichte. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1994, 155-74: ‘Akte des Fingierens in The Importance of Being Earnest

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